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Table of contents

Severe combustion Olivas American engineer mission specialist astronaut AJ Aerojet solid rocket engine. The version tested and also proposed for Von Braun Lunar Lander American manned lunar lander. Von Braun's first lunar lander design was an immense spacecraft, larger Gemini 8 First docking of two spacecraft. After docking with Agena target, a stuck thruster aboard Gemini resulted in the Suborbital Cabin Russian manned spacecraft.

Bio-Suit American space suit, study of Novel approach that used biomedical breakthroughs in skin replacement and Vanguard American orbital launch vehicle. Vanguard was the 'civilian' vehicle developed by the US Navy to launch America's Gemini 9 Third rendezvous mission of Gemini program. Agena target blew up on way to orbit; substitute target's shroud hung Mercury Space Suit American space suit, operational The Mercury spacesuit was a custom-fitted, modified version of the Goodrich Apollo 9 First manned test of the Lunar Module.

First test of the Apollo space suits. First manned flight of a spacecraft Paris Gun German gun-launched missile. Apollo Martin American manned lunar lander. The Model was Martin's preferred design for the Apollo spacecraft. Energia strap-on. Developed First flight Used one-plane gimballing Kliper Russian manned spaceplane. The Kliper manned spacecraft replacement for Soyuz was first announced Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, New Shepard American manned spacecraft.

Flight tests begun Apollo 8 First manned flight to lunar orbit. Mission resulted from A-4b German intermediate range boost-glide missile. Winged version of the V-2 missile with over double the range.

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Gemini 7 Record flight duration 14 days to that date. Incredibly boring mission, made more uncomfortable by the extensive Shepard American test pilot astronaut First American in space. Grounded on medical grounds during Gemini, but The Nedelin Catastrophe James Oberg's classic account of the greatest disaster in space history. X American winged rocketplane. NASA-sponsored suborbital unmanned prototype for a single-stage-to-orbit rocketplane. XA-2 American manned spaceplane.

The crash-damaged X number 2 was rebuilt to attain even higher speeds. The body The proposal The A12 has been named as the designation for a true orbital launch vehicle, as Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches.

Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built Atlas V Heavy American orbital launch vehicle. Heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle system with three parallel 3. Mercury American single-crew manned spacecraft. Mercury was America's first man-in-space project, but ran second in the Escafandra Estratonautica Spanish pressure suit. UR Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. In Vladimir Chelomei proposed a family of modular launch vehicles.

Apollo 16 Second Apollo mission with lunar rover. CSM main engine failure detected in lunar orbit. Landing almost aborted. Salyut 1 Russian manned space station. Salyut 1 was the first DOS long duration orbital station, an Almaz spaceframe modified XB American manned spacecraft.

North American's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project Blackstar American manned spaceplane. If so, it may have derived Saturn C-8 American orbital launch vehicle. The largest member of the Saturn family ever contemplated. Designed for direct Atlas D American intercontinental ballistic missile. Rocket used both as a space launcher and ICBM. Gemini 12 First completely successful space walk. Final Gemini flight. Docked and redocked with Agena, demonstrating various Sea Horse American sea-launched test vehicle.

The second phase of Sea Launch was to demonstrate the concept on a larger Saturn V-4X U American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, Four core vehicles from Saturn V S study lashed together Minuteman 3 American four-stage solid-propellant intercontinental ballistic missile. In the 21st Century, the sole remaining Newton's Orbital Cannon British gun-launched orbital launch vehicle.

Isaac Newton discussed the use of a cannon to attain orbit in Soyuz TMA Russian three-crew manned spacecraft. Designed for use as a lifeboat for the International Space Station. Developed as attitude control thruster for the Apollo Service and Lunar Modules No rocket engines went into production using this propellant combination.

URM Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. In the Soviet Union began project Aelita, studying the best method Almaz OPS Russian manned space station. MOOSE was perhaps the most celebrated bail-out from orbit system Tikhonravov Suborbital Soviet space pioneer Tikhonravov proposed a Vlaunched manned capsule to Stalin in June Had his plan been By the time development Gemini 6 First rendezvous of two spacecraft.

Originally was to dock with an Agena target, but this blew up on way to orbit. Atlas D modified for use in Project Mercury. Von Braun German winged orbital launch vehicle. Von Braun's design for a reusable space launcher used the same mass Originally planned for use in Centaur upper Black Brant The Black Brant originated in a Canadian government requirement for a sounding rocket to characterize the Apollo 10 Final dress rehearsal in lunar orbit for landing on moon.

LM separated and descended to 10 km from surface of Mir-2 Russian manned space station. The Mir-2 space station was originally authorized in the February Improved version of the F-1, which would have been used Rockoon American air-launched sounding rocket. The Rockoon balloon-launched rocket consisted of a small high-performance In January Boeing issued a report that was the result of a MiG Russian manned spaceplane.

Atmospheric flight test version of the Spiral Gemini 5 First American flight to seize duration record from Soviet Union. Mission plan curtailed due to fuel cell problems; Engine developed for Uprated Saturn and Nova million-pound Saturn C-5N American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. Version of Saturn C-5 considered with small nuclear thermal stage in Saenger II Proposed two stage to orbit vehicle. Air-breathing hypersonic first stage and delta wing second stage.

The German Apollo 14 Third manned lunar landing. Only Mercury astronaut to reach moon. Five attempts to dock the command module with Sprint ABM Nuclear-armed point defense anti-ballistic missile, an incredible high-acceleration weapon that would intercept Aerobee American sounding rocket. Titan I American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM, built as back-up to Atlas, using two stages instead of one Komarov Russian pilot cosmonaut First person to die during spaceflight when the parachute lines of Soyuz Titan 3D with Centaur D-1T upper stage. Used by NASA for deep space missions Yet another of Philip Bono's single-stage-to-orbit Voskhod 2 First space walk.

Speed and altitude records. A disaster: astronaut unable to reenter airlock due to spacesuit Resnik American engineer mission specialist astronaut Died in Challenger accident. First new large liquid-fueled rocket engine developed in America TMK-1 Russian manned Mars flyby. In a group of enthusiasts in OKB-1 Section 3 under the management Out of production. The first large, man-rated, throttleable, restartable Draeger Suit German pressure suit, developed Draeger-Werke developed a hard shell full pressure suit for the Nazi Gemini 4 First American space walk.

First American long-duration spaceflight. Astronaut could barely get back into capsule This version of Gemini would allow a direct manned lunar landing mission Seabee American sea-launched test vehicle. Seabee was a brief proof of principle program to validate the sea-launch concept Falcon 9 American low cost orbital launch vehicle.

Gagarin Russian pilot cosmonaut First person in space. Due to his fame, the Soviet leadership did not want Black Arrow British orbital launch vehicle. Britain's only indigenous launch vehicle. Following cancellation of the project Ilyushin Russian test pilot. Most tangible phantom cosmonaut, purported first man in orbit according to French press report Delta 4H American orbital launch vehicle. Heavy lift all-cryogenic launch vehicle using two Delta-4 core vehicles as first J-2 version proposed for Saturn follow-on vehicles, using Vostok 6 Joint flight with Vostok 5.

First woman in space. Tereshkova did not reply during several communications sessions. Hughes-Fulford American biologist payload specialist astronaut Early 's recoverable launch vehicle proposed by Krafft Ehricke X American manned spaceplane. Lifting body reentry vehicle designed as emergency return spacecraft for International Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, MK Russian manned Mars flyby.

Chelomei was the only Chief Designer to complete an Aelita draft project Kvant Russian manned space station module. Kvant 1. The Kvant spacecraft represented the first use of a new kind of German Rocketplanes German manned rocketplane family. Taming the Fire The story of the making of the Soviet film that took viewers inside the life of Sergei Korolev and the Baikonur R Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile.

The R, with a range of km, was the only missile of that Mars: Fourth planet from the Sun, a terrestrial planet. Mass: The quantity of matter in a body. It can be determined by measuring the force of gravity weight acting on it and dividing this by the gravitational acceleration at that point. Thus, the mass of a given body remains the same everywhere, while its weight changes with the gravitational attraction. Mass fraction: Mass of a component divided by the total mass of all components in the system.

Mass ratio: Ratio of the total mass of a rocket vehicle to the mass remaining when all the propellant is consumed. Max Q: Maximum dynamic pressure; the point during launch when the vehicle is subjected to its greatest aerodynamic stress. Mean: Synonym for average. Medium Earth Orbit: An orbit in the region of space above low Earth orbit 2, kilometers and below geosynchronous orbit 35, kilometers.

Sometimes called Intermediate Circular Orbit. Medium-gain antenna: A spacecraft antenna that provides greater data rates than a low-gain antenna, with wider angles of coverage than a high gain antenna, about degrees. Mercury: First planet from the Sun, a terrestrial planet. Meridian: Great circle that passes through both the north and south poles, also called line of longitude. Meteor: The luminous phenomenon seen when a meteoroid enters the atmosphere, commonly known as a shooting star. Meteoroid: A solid body, moving in space, that is smaller than an asteroid and at least as large as a speck of dust.

Nearly all meteoroids originate from asteroids or comets. MeV: One million electron volts. MHz: Megahertz, equal to one million hertz. Microgravity: An environment of very weak gravitational forces, such as those within an orbiting spacecraft. Microgravity conditions in space stations may allow experiments or manufacturing processes that are not possible on Earth. Micrometeoroid protection: Shielding used to protect spacecraft components from micrometeoroid impacts. Interplanetary spacecraft typically use tough blankets of Kevlar or other strong fabrics to absorb the energy from high-velocity particles.

Microwaves: Radio waves having wavelengths of less than 20 centimeters. Milky Way: The galaxy which includes the Sun and Earth. Minor planet: An asteroid. Missile: An object or a weapon that is fired, thrown, dropped, or otherwise projected at a target; a projectile. Mixture ratio: Ratio of the masses of the fuel to the oxidizer at any given time. A liquid hypergolic fuel. Mock-up: A full-size replica or dummy of a vehicle, e. Modulation: The variation of a property of an electromagnetic wave or signal, such as its amplitude, frequency, or phase.

Module: A self-contained unit of a spacecraft or space station which serves as a building block for the total structure. Momentum: The product of the mass of a body and its velocity.

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Mono-propellant: A rocket propellant consisting of a single substance, especially a liquid containing both fuel and oxidizer, either combined or mixed together. Moon: A small natural body which orbits a larger one. A natural satellite. Motor: In spacecraft, a rocket that burns solid propellants. MT: Megatonne, equal to 1 million tonnes.

MT: Moscow Time. Multiplexer: A mechanical or electrical device for sharing a circuit by two or more coincident signals. Multistage rocket: A rocket having two or more stages which operate in succession each being discarded as its job is done. For example, a milestone may occur when a major result has been achieved, if its successful attainment is a pre-requisite for the next phase of work.

N N 2 O 4 : Nitrogen Tetroxide. Also abbreviated NTO. Nadir: The direction from a spacecraft directly down toward the center of a planet. Opposite the zenith. Nautical mile: The distance spanned by one minute of arc in latitude, defined internationally as 1, meters 6, Neptune: Eighth planet from the Sun, a gas giant or Jovian planet. Neutron: Atomic particles having approximately the same mass as a hydrogen atom; very penetrating.

Newton: That force which gives a mass of 1 kilogram an acceleration of 1 meter per second per second; equal to , dynes.

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NiCd: Nickel Cadmium. Nitric acid: A liquid oxidizer that reacts spontaneously with hydrazine. Nitrogen tetroxide: A liquid oxidizer that reacts spontaneously with hydrazine. Noctilucent clouds: Weakly-luminous clouds, seen at night at heights of about 50 miles 80 km above the Earth. Non-coherent: Communications mode wherein a spacecraft generates its downlink frequency independent of any uplink frequency.

Nose shroud: A cover on the nose of a rocket or spacecraft which jettisons before insertion into orbit. Nozzle: The projecting aperture at the end of a combustion chamber serving as an outlet for the exhaust gases. NTO: Nitrogen Tetroxide. Also abbreviated N2O4. Nucleus: The central body of a comet. O Occultation: The passage of a celestial body across a line between an observer and another celestial object; and the progressive blocking of light, radio waves, or other radiation from a celestial source during such a passage.

Omnidirectional: Capable of transmitting or receiving signals in all directions, as an antenna. One-way: Communications mode consisting only of downlink received from a spacecraft. One-way light time: The elapsed time it takes for light, or a radio signal, to reach a spacecraft or other body from Earth, or vice versa. Oort cloud: A large swarm of comets theorized to orbit the sun in the neighborhood of 50, AU. Orbit: The path of a body acted upon by the force of gravity. Under the influence of a single attracting body, all orbital paths trace out simple conic sections.

Although all ballistic or free-fall trajectories follow an orbital path, the word orbit is more usually associated with the continuous path of a body which does not impact with its primary. Orbit insertion: The placing of a spacecraft into orbit around a planet or moon. Orbital elements: Six quantities used to mathematically describe an orbit; i. Orbital mechanics: The study of the motions of artificial satellites and space vehicles moving under the influence of forces such as gravity, drag, and thrust.

Also called flight mechanics. Discarded prior to reentry. Orbital period: The time taken by an orbiting body to complete one orbit. Orbiter spacecraft: A spacecraft designed to travel to a distant planet or moon and enter orbit. It must carry a substantial propulsive capability to decelerate it at the right moment to achieve orbit insertion. O-stage: Rocket boosters which operate during part of the burning time of the first stage of a launch vehicle to provide additional thrust. Oxidizer: An agent that releases oxygen for combination with another substance, creating combustion and gas for propulsion.

Alternatively oxidants. Parachute: An apparatus used to retard free fall, consisting of a light, usually hemispherical canopy attached by cords and stored folded until deployed in descent. Parallel: Circle in parallel planes to that of the equator defining north-south measurements, also called line of latitude. Parking orbit: Orbit in which a space vehicle awaits the next phase of its planned mission.

Pascal: A unit of pressure equal to one Newton per square meter. Passive cooling: The use of painting, shading, reflectors and other techniques to cool a spacecraft. Payload: Revenue-producing or useful cargo carried by a spacecraft; also, anything carried in a rocket or spacecraft that is not part of the structure, propellant, or guidance systems. PBAN: Polybutadiene acrylic acid acrylonitrile. Pegasus: A rocket-vehicle concept for transportation of commercial high-priority freight or passengers.

Periapsis: That point in an orbit which is nearest to the primary. Perigee: That point in a terrestrial orbit which is nearest to the Earth. Perihelion: That point in a solar orbit which is nearest to the Sun. Perilune: That point in a lunar orbit which is nearest to the Moon. Period of revolution: Time of one complete cycle in orbital motion — referred to as a year when applied to Earth.

Period of rotation: Time of one complete cycle — referred to as a day when applied to Earth. Perturbation: Modifications to simple conic section orbits caused by such disturbances as air drag, non-uniformity of the Earth, and gravitational fields of more distant bodies such as the Moon. Phase angle: The angle in which waves come to a body. Photometer: An optical instrument that measures the intensity of light from a source. Photometry: The measurement of light intensities. Photon: A quantum of radiant energy.

Photon propulsion: The propulsion of a vehicle by the emission of photons, which possess momentum. Photosphere: The visible surface of the Sun. Photovoltaic cells: Crystalline wafers called solar cells which convert sunlight directly into electricity without moving parts. Pitch: The rotation of a vehicle about its lateral Y axis, i. Planet: A nonluminous celestial body larger than an asteroid or a comet, illuminated by light from a star, such as the sun, around which it revolves. The only known planets are those of the Sun but others have been detected on physical non-observational grounds around some of the nearer stars.

Planetoid: An asteroid. Plasma: A gas-like association of ionized particles that responds collectively to electric and magnetic fields. Plasma detector: A device for measuring the density, composition, temperature, velocity and three-dimensional distribution of plasmas that exist in interplanetary regions and within planetary magnetospheres.

Plasma engine: A rocket engine in which thrust is obtained from the acceleration of a plasma with crossed electrical and magnetic fields. Plasma wave: An oscillation or wave in a plasma that falls in the audio range of frequency. Plasma wave detector: A device for measuring the electrostatic and electromagnetic components of local plasma waves in three dimensions. Plug nozzle: A doughnut-shaped combustion chamber which discharges engine gases against the surface of a short central cone the plug. Pluto: Ninth planet from the Sun, considered by many a minor planet.

Plutonium A form of the radioactive element plutonium, characterized by high energy emissions. PO: Polar Orbit. Polar orbit: An orbit which passes over the poles. Polarimeter: An optical instrument that measures the direction and extent of the polarization of light reflected from its targets. Polymer: A compound used as a binder for solid rocket propellant systems; more generally, a compound consisting of repeating structural units.

Potential energy: The energy of a body due to its position in a field.

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Pound: The U. Precession: A change in the direction of the axis of spin of a rotating body. Pressure suit: A suit, with helmet attached, which is inflated to provide body pressure and air, worn by the crew of certain spacecraft and aircraft which fly at great altitudes. Pressurized: Containing air or other gas at a pressure higher than the pressure outside the chamber. Primary: The body around which a satellite orbits. Primitive: Used in a chemical sense, indicating an unmodified material representative of the original composition of the solar nebula. Probe: An unmanned instrumented vehicle sent into space to gather information.

Propellant: A chemical or chemical mixture burned to create the thrust for a rocket or spacecraft. Propulsion: The process of driving or propelling. Pulsar: Discovered in Pulsars emit radio signals the pulsations of which are extremely precise. The evidence suggests that pulsars are fast-spinning neutron stars. Pyrotechnics : The use of electrically initiated explosive devices to operate valves, ignite solid rocket motors, and explode bolts to separate from or jettison hardware, or to deploy appendages.

Part A — The part of a proposal dealing with administrative data. This part is completed using the web-based EPSS. Part B — The part of a proposal explaining the work to be carried out, and the roles and aptitudes of the participants in the consortium.

This part is uploaded to the EPSS as a pdf document. Participants — The members of a consortium in a proposal or project. Programme committee — A group of official national representatives who assist the Commission in implementing the Framework Programme. Proposal — A description of the planned research activities, information on who will carry them out, how much they will cost, and how much funding is requested.

Q Quasars : Quasi-stellar objects. They are believed to be among the most distant objects in the observable Universe, emitting more energy than some of the most powerful galaxies. R Radar: System or technique for detecting the position, motion, and nature of a remote object by means of radio waves reflected from its surface. Radian: Unit of angular measurement equal to the angle at the center of a circle subtended by an arc equal in length to the radius.

Equals about Radiation: Energy in the form of electromagnetic waves or particles. Radio: The least energetic form of electromagnetic radiation, having the lowest frequency and the longest wavelength. Radio astronomy: The science of astronomy using radio waves instead of light waves. Radio guidance: A system which is dependent on outside signals for information. Radioisotopes: Atomic particles which decay by natural radioactivity.

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator: A device that converts the heat produced by the radioactive decay of plutonium into electricity by an array of thermocouples made of silicon-germanium junctions. The Pu is contained within a crash resistant housing. Radiometry: The detection and measurement of radiant electromagnetic energy, usually in the infrared.

Rankine: A temperature scale, having a degree equal to the Fahrenheit degree but having a zero point at absolute zero. The freezing point of water is at RD: Reaktivnyi Dvigatel. Russian for reaction motor. RE: Unit of distance equal to the radius of the Earth, Reaction control system: System of thrusters used to control spacecraft attitude.

Reaction wheels: Electrically-powered wheels mounted in three orthogonal axes aboard a spacecraft.

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To rotate the vehicle in one direction, you spin up the proper wheel in the opposite direction. To rotate the vehicle back, you slow down the wheel.

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Readout: The action of a radio transmitter sending data either at the same time as data are acquired or by playback from an electronic memory. Receiver: An electronic device that receives incoming radio signals and converts them to perceptible forms. Red dwarf: A small star, on the order of times the mass of Jupiter. Redundancy: The duplication of certain critical components in a space vehicle. Refraction: The deflection or bending of electromagnetic waves when they pass from one kind of transparent medium into another.

Regenerative cooling: Circulation of a propellant through a jacket around the combustion chamber in order to cool the chamber wall, the propellant subsequently being injected into the combustion chamber. Relay: An electrical switch employing an armature to open and close circuits. Rem: Roentgen Equivalent Man.

A measure of nuclear radiation causing biological damage. Remote sensing: Instruments that record characteristics of objects at a distance, sometimes forming an image by gathering, focusing, and recording reflected light from the Sun, or reflected radio waves emitted by the spacecraft. Rendezvous: A place of meeting at a given time, for example, a spaceship with a space station. Resolution: Ability to distinguish visual detail, usually expressed in terms of the size in kilometers of the smallest features that can be distinguished.

Retrorocket: A rocket fired to reduce the speed of a spacecraft. Revolution: Orbital motion about a primary. RF: Radio Frequency. Right ascension is measured in hours, minutes, and seconds and is similar to longitude on Earth. Ring current: A very spread-out electric current circling around the Earth, carried by trapped ions and electrons. RJ A hydrocarbon rocket fuel a refined kerosene.

Rocket: A missile or vehicle propelled by the combustion of a fuel and a contained oxygen supply. The forward thrust of a rocket results when exhaust products are ejected from the tail. Roll: The rotational movement of a vehicle about a longitudinal X axis. Rotation: Rotary motion about an axis. Round-trip light time: The elapsed time it takes for light, or a radio signal, to travel from Earth, be received and immediately transmitted or reflected, and return to the starting point. RP A hydrocarbon rocket fuel a refined kerosene. RV: Reentry Vehicle. Reserve list — Due to budgetary constraints it may not be possible to support all proposals that have been evaluated positively.

In such conditions, proposals on a reserve list may only be financed if funds become available following the negotiation of projects on the main list. Satellite: Any body, natural or artificial, in orbit around a planet. The term is used most often to describe moons and spacecraft. Saturn: Sixth planet from the Sun, a gas giant or Jovian planet.

Seismometer: A device for measuring movements of the ground. Semi-major axis: Half the major axis of an ellipse. The mean distance of a planet or satellite from its primary. Sensor: An electronic device for measuring or indicating a direction or movement. Sequencer: A mechanical or electrical device which may be set to initiate a series of events and to make events follow a sequence.

Service module: That part of a spacecraft which usually carries a maneuvering engine, thrusters, electrical supply, oxygen and other consumables external to the descent module. Sextant: An instrument that measures angular distances from fixed celestial objects. Shepherd moon: Moon which gravitationally confines ring particles. Sidereal time: Time relative to the stars other than the Sun. Simulator: A device that mimics the operational conditions of equipment or vehicles. SL: Sea Level. Slug: The U. SM: Service Module.

Solar: Of or pertaining to the Sun. Solar array: See solar panel. Solar cell: A cell that converts sunlight into electrical energy. The light falling on certain substances e. Solar constant: The electromagnetic radiation from the Sun that falls on a unit area of surface normal to the line from the Sun, per unit time, outside the atmosphere, at one astronomical unit.

Solar flare: A sudden brightening in some part of the Sun, followed by the emission of jets of gas and a flood of ultra-violet radiation. The gale of protons which accompanies a flare can be very dangerous to astronauts. Solar nebula: The large cloud of gas and dust from which the Sun and planets condensed 4. Solar panel: An array of light-sensitive cells attached to a spacecraft and used to generate electrical power for the vehicle in space. Also called solar array. Solar sensors: Light-sensitive diodes which indicate the direction of the Sun.

Solar wind: A current of charged particles that streams outward from the Sun. Solid propellant: A rocket propellant in solid form; usually consisting of a mixture of fuel and oxidizer. Solid rocket booster: A rocket, powered by solid propellants, used to launch spacecraft into orbit. Sounding rocket: A research rocket used to obtain data from the upper atmosphere. Space colony: Hypothetical extra-terrestrial habitat, for hundreds, thousands or even millions of people, perhaps established on a moon or planet or as an artificial construction in free space.

Space debris: Man-made objects or parts thereof in space which do not serve any useful purpose. Spacecraft: A piloted or unpiloted vehicle designed for travel in space. It meters the passing of time during the life of the spacecraft, and regulates nearly all activity within the spacecraft systems. Space platform: A large artificial satellite conceived as a habitable base in space with scientific, exploratory or military applications. A space station.

Space station: An orbiting spacecraft designed to support human activity for an extended time. Space weather: The popular name for energy-releasing phenomena in the magnetosphere, associated with magnetic storms, substorms and shocks. Specific impulse: Parameter for rating the performance of a rocket engine. Indicates how many pounds or kilograms of thrust are obtained by consumption of a pound or kilogram of propellant in one second. Spectrometer: An optical instrument that splits the light received from an object into its component wavelengths by means of a diffraction grating; then measuring the amplitudes of the individual wavelengths.

Spectroscopy: The study of the production, measurement and interpretation of electromagnetic spectra. Spectrum: A particular distribution of wavelengths and frequencies. Spin stabilization: Spacecraft stabilization accomplished by rotating the spacecraft mass, thus using gyroscopic action as the stabilizing mechanism. Consists mainly of ammonium perchlorate as the oxidizer, powdered aluminum as the metallic fuel, and PBAN, polybutadiene-acrylic acid-acrylonitrile terpolymer, as the polymeric fuel binder.

A small amount of iron oxide is added to increase the burning rate. The final product is a rubbery material not unlike a typewriter eraser. Stage: An independently powered section of a rocket or spacecraft, often combined with others to form multistage vehicles. Star: A self-luminous celestial body consisting of a mass of gas held together by its own gravity in which the energy generated by nuclear reactions in the interior is balanced by the outflow of energy to the surface, and the inward-directed gravitational forces are balanced by the outward-directed gas and radiation pressures.

Static firing: The firing of a rocket on a special test stand to measure thrust, etc. Subatomic particles: Fundamental components of matter such as electrons or protons. Critical reception of the film upon its premiere was mostly positive. Tim Reyes of Universe Today complimented the titular theme of ambition in the film, stating that it "shows us the forces at work in and around ESA", and that the it "might accomplish more in 7 minutes than Gravity did in The entire mission was featured heavily in social media, with a Facebook account for the mission and both the satellite and the lander having an official Twitter account portraying a personification of both spacecraft.

The hashtag " CometLanding" gained widespread traction. A Livestream of the control centres was set up, as were multiple official and unofficial events around the world to follow Philae 's landing on 67P. About Rosetta 's mission 9 min. About Philae 's landing 10 min. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cornerstone 3 mission in the Horizon programme; orbital reconnaissance of the periodic comet Churyumov—Gerasimenko.

For other uses, see Rosetta disambiguation. Horizon Main article: Philae spacecraft. Main article: Timeline of Rosetta spacecraft. Play media. Spaceflight portal. German Aerospace Center. Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 8 January Status Reports. European Space Agency. Retrieved 7 October Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 13 September Ask us Anything! Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 30 June The New York Times. Retrieved 5 August Retrieved 21 January July Planetary and Space Science. October Bibcode : Sci Retrieved 24 May Retrieved 26 November Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 29 July New Scientist.

Retrieved 1 October Archived from the original on 6 August Retrieved 28 May Retrieved 21 May The Planetary Society. Archived from the original on 15 August Retrieved 15 August Tech Times. Retrieved 19 October Retrieved 18 January Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 4 October Retrieved 20 November Space Science Reviews.

Bibcode : SSRv.. BBC News. Excite News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 20 January Comet-hunting spacecraft gets wake-up call". Los Angeles Times. Science Now. Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 12 November Sky News. Retrieved 5 September In Bleeker, Johan A. The Century of Space Science. Kluwer Academic. Advances in Space Research. Bibcode : AdSpR Astronomer's Universe. Retrieved 25 January Long Now.

The Rosetta Project. Retrieved 2 January Retrieved 19 July National Space Science Data Center.

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  • Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 13 August Porto, Portugal. Retrieved 2 December The Rosetta Propulsion System. Sardinia, Italy. Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 15 November Space Systems Failures. Bibcode : Natur. April Acta Astronautica. Bibcode : AcAau.. Retrieved 15 October Archived from the original on 25 February Archived from the original on 7 March Minor Planet Center. Archived from the original on 23 May Retrieved 6 October Minor Planet Electronic Circular. Retrieved 22 May European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium. Hatfield, United Kingdom. Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 26 August